Monday, 29 October 2012

Comparing Poetry an Acronym - LETTSBC

Concept Map for Comparing Poetry An Acronym - LETTSBC

Main Body


Main Body
Main Body
Tone & Mood
Main Body
Themes & Ideas
Main Body
Structure & Form
Main Body
Background & Setting
Content – Poetic Voice
Note: When writing your responses to comparing poetry start with
1. Introduction, then:
  1. 2. Background & Setting
  2. 3. Themes & Ideas
  3. 4. Structure & Form
  4. 5. Tone & Mood
  5. 6. Language
  6. 7. Effect
8. Finally end with your conclusion.


An image is language used in such a way as to help us to see, hear, feel, taste, think about or generally understand more clearly and vividly what is being said, or the impression that the writer wants to create. The imagery is created through descriptive language.
Images can work in different ways:
A literal image: re-creates the scene or description through precise language.
A figurative language: uses comparisons to make the description more vivid.
In poems you study you will find several types of imagery: Similes, metaphors, personification, aural imagery, alliteration, assonance and onomatopoeia.


The way the poet uses language and what effect he/she wants to create.

Tone & Mood

The effect that a poem has on a reader can be closely linked to the tone and mood that the poet creates. A poem contains a ‘voice’ and like any voice it can be ‘spoken’ in a variety of ways that give the listener (or reader) certain messages.
There are many different types of tone: i.e. Angry, sad, joyful, ironic or bitter etc.
The tone of voice in which someone speaks tells us a great deal about the way they feel, so the tone of the ‘poetic voice’ tells us a lot about how the poet or narrator of the poem feels or wants us to feel. The Mood: of the poem refers to the atmosphere that the poem creates.

Themes & Ideas

Caught between cultures
Climate / conditions
Symbols of a culture
Comparisons with other cultures
Living conditions
Family attitudes
The political attitudes
Do not just identify, explain and analyse the effects created by the ways in which the poets use language.

Structures & Forms

Rhyme, Rhythm, Free Verse. How the poem(s) are organized into lines, stanzas and sections.
How some poems have lines that rhyme and others that sound more like prose written in a poetic way. Comment on how the poet’s choices of structure and form support the meaning of the poem.
Structure: The poet has made conscious choices to organize the poem as it appears on the page. Try to understand the poet’s thinking behind:
1. The organization of the lines.
2. Any repetition of lines or varying lengths of lines.
3. Whether the lines are end-stopped or whether the sense carries over to the next line.

Background & Settings

Different cultures.
Some factors that contribute to defining cultures: Race, nationality, language, religion, education, wealth/poverty, social behaviour, attitudes, customs, traditions, literature, music, painting, entertainment, sense of humour, politics, food, dress.
Social Context: The kind of society that existed when the poem was written. The way the theme, setting and characters of the poems are influenced by the social background.
Cultural Context: The ideas, philosophies, cultural ideas that existed when the poem was written.
Historical Context: The historical period that the poem was written in. Events and discoveries etc, that were important and influenced in that period.

Content – Poetic Voice

What the poem is about and poetic voice – who is talking. Even when ‘I’ is used it does not necessarily mean that the poet is the speaker.
The voice of the poem may be the poet or in some cases may be a character, created by the poet.
The voice is important in a poem, it is that speaker who is feeling a particular emotion, expressing ideas or through whose eyes and point of view we see the event(s) or details described in the poem.

What to do with LETTSBC...

What the poem is about and capturing the 'flavour of each'
Main Body
Several paragraphs based on your detailed reading of the poems.
It is a good idea to make a point about one poem and then a point about the other poem.
It can help if you structure your ideas in a logical way, e.g. one paragraph could compare the way each uses imagery, another could focus on the structure etc...
A concluding paragraph that sums up the main similarities and differences.


Tuesday, 16 October 2012

Narrative - Checklist

First Person Narrative
The author takes on the role of a character.
The story is told from the inside.
The narrator appears to address you directly - this increases the illusion that the story is real.
This view is more limited because we can only see things through the narrator's eyes.
We do not know what is going on inside other people's heads.

Second Person Narrative
This addresses the reader directly and is a powerful way of encouraging the reader to engage with the text. This narrative refers to one of the characters as 'you'.

Third Person Narrative
The narrator can see and hear everything that is going on - a kind of 'fly on the wall approach'.
The narrator can tell us of events that happen in different places at different times.
We are often told how different characters feel and what they are thinking.
The narrator is more detached and can make comments on the characters.

Interior Monologues
Can be used to reflect and develop the thoughts in a characters mind. Using interior monologues allows the reader to see how a character's thoughts are developing.

Stream of Consciousness
Writing in which thoughts are written randomly just as if they have been spilled out of the character's mind onto the page, consequently one of the features of this kind of writing is that it appears unstructured, un-punctuated and chaotic. However, it is important to remember that the writer has deliberately structured it in this way to reflect the complex outpourings of the human mind.

Monday, 15 October 2012

Approaching Un-Prepared Non-Fiction Texts - Checklist

Active Reading Strategies:

  • Consider the title – suggests what the text is about
  • Consider the introduction carefully
  • Read the text in full – to gain the sense of the text and an understanding of the content
  • Read the text again – highlight important keywords and phrases
  • Look for 3 key things: 1. Audience 2. Purpose 3. Writers Technique
  • 1. Audience – Is the text aimed at a particular audience? Does the complexity of language suggest a certain readership?
  • Audience – Knowledge – Do you need to know anything to make sense of the text, or is it explained to you?
  • Audience Opinions – Is the reader expected to share the same views and opinions as the writer?
  • 2. Purpose – What is the purpose of the text? – Figure out what the writer is trying to achieve?


  • A Framework for considering Purpose:
  • Inform, Explain, Describe - Writing to make something clear, to provide information
  • Argue, Persuade, Advise - Writing to discuss an issue, or persuade someone to share your views
  • Explore, Imagine, Entertain – Writing intended for no other purpose than to be entertaining to the reader
  • 3 . Writers Technique1. Word Level, 2. Sentence level, 3. Text level
  • 1. Word level – What features do you notice?
  • Emotive language – language used to deliberately create an emotional response or impact
  • Technical language
  • Informal language
  • Simple language
  • Figurative language
  • Formal language


Figurative Language:

  • Similes
  • Metaphors
  • Personification
  • Alliteration
  • Onomatopoeia
  • Idiom
  • Cliché
  • Hyperbole
  • 2. Sentence Level – Consider the way the writer combines words and phrases into sentences. Note how different writers achieve this and consider the choices they make when they decide which sentence level features to use:
  • Simple sentence
  • Sentence variety
  • Punctuation
  • Tense
  • First person narrative
  • Second person narrative
  • Third person narrative
  • 3. Text Level – Consider the appearance of the text on the page. Notice how different writers do this and the choices they make:
  • Illustrations
  • Layout features
  • Signpost words and phrases

Monday, 1 October 2012

The Nature & Variety of Living Organisms - Biology Checklist

Characteristics of Living Organisms:

  • they require nutrition
  • they respire
  • they excrete their waste
  • they respond to their surroundings
  • they move
  • they control their internal conditions
  • they reproduce
  • they grow and develop

Variety of living organisms:

Common features shared by organisms within the following main groups:
  • plants
  • animals
  • fungi
  • bacteria
  • protoctists
  • viruses
Examples and features of each group:

  • these are multicellular organisms
  • their cells contain chloroplasts and are able to carry out photosynthesis
  • their cells have cellulose cell walls
  • they store carbohydrates as starch or sucrose
  • Examples include:
  • Flowering plants, such as a cereal (e.g. maize), and a herbaceous legume (peas or beans).
  • these are multicellular organisms
  • their cells do not contain chloroplasts and are not able to carry out photosynthesis
  • they have no cell walls
  • they usually have nervous coordination and are able to move from one place to another
  • they often store carbohydrate glycogen
  • Examples include:
  • Mammals (e.g. humans) and insects (e.g. housefly, mosquito)

these are organisms that are not able to carry out photosynthesis
their body is usually organized into a mycelium made from thread-like structures called hyphae, which contain many nuclei
some examples are single-celled
their cells have walls made of chitin
they feed by extracellular secretion of digestive enzymes onto food material and absorption of the organic products – this is known as saprotrophic nutrition
they may store carbohydrate as glycogen
Examples include:
Mucor, which has the typical fungal hyphal structure, and yeast which is single-celled.

  • these are microscopic single- celled organisms
  • they have a cell wall
  • cell membrane
  • cytoplasm and plasmids
  • they lack a nucleus but contain a circular chromosome of DNA
  • some bacteria can carry out photosynthesis but most feed off other living or dead organisms
Examples include:

Lactobacillus bulgaricus, a rod-shaped bacterium used in the production of yoghurt from milk, and Pneumococcus, a spherical bacterium that acts as the pathogen causing pneumonia.

  • these are microscopic single-celled organisms
  • some like Amoeba, that live in pond water, have features like an animal cell, while others like Chlorella, have chloroplasts and are more like plants.
  • A pathogenic example is plasmodium responsible for causing malaria.
  • these are small particles, smaller than bacteria
  • they are parasitic and can reproduce only inside living cells
  • they infect every type of living organism
  • they have a wide variety of shapes and sizes
  • they have no cellular structure but have a protein coat and contain one type of nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA
Examples include:

The tobacco mosaic virus that causes discolouring of the leaves of tobacco plants by preventing the formation of chloroplasts, the influenza virus that causes ‘flu’ and the HIV virus that causes ‘AIDS’.