Saturday, 8 September 2012

Guide to Creating Your Reference List

Learning, Research & Organisational Skills - Guide to Creating Your Reference List

 

Introduction

For every academic assignment you produce you are required to acknowledge the work of others by referencing in the text and creating a list of references at the end.

In-Text Referencing

In-text referencing enables you to indicate in your work where you have used ideas or material from other sources – to do this quote the authors surname and date of publication, i.e.
(Gibbs, 1998)

Quotes
If you are using the exact form of words used in the original and putting the text in quote marks (direct quoting); you also need to include the page number(s) of the quoted material in your in-text reference.
i.e. Gibbs talks about ‘the importance of planning’ for your assignments (1998, P.10)

Notes:
  • For larger quotes – display in a separate paragraph.
  • If you do not name the source at the beginning of your quote, then it must be give after it.

Authors with more than one publication
In your reference list items are listed only once in alphabetical order.
You may need to refer to more than one publication by an author for a specific year. So that these different items in your in-text referencing can be identified, you should add a letter of the alphabet to the year of publication, i.e.
(Gibbs, 1998 a), (Gibbs, 1998 b) and (Gibbs, 1998 c) – a, b and c refer to the order in which they are referenced in your text.

Multiple Authors
If a publication has three or more authors, the in-text referencing should list only the first author followed by:
Et al (‘and others’) i.e.
(Gibbs et al, 1998)
 
In the reference list you should list each author in full, i.e.
Drake, R.L., Vogl, W. , and Mitchell, A.W.M. (2005) Philadelphia, Elsevier Inc.
 

Reference List

At the end of your work, you should reference your sources, this should be done in alphabetical order, by author surname and should include everything you need to identify the item.
You need to identify the source type, i.e. book, article, website, journal. You need to use the correct referencing format (listed at the end of this guide), to create the reference.
Your reference list title is simply: Reference List.

Secondary Referencing
Where you have discovered a quotation or an idea through a secondary source, where you have not read the original; this is known as ‘secondary referencing’.
You may try to find the original, but if you are unable to, you need to make it clear in your work that you are referencing the secondary source and have not read the original, i.e.

Secondary referencing for in-text referencing:
Gibbs, quoted in Pearson (2012) states ‘the importance of planning’ (P.5)

Secondary referencing in the reference list:
You must provide the details for the source that you read it in, i.e.
Pearson, J. (2012) Study Skills, Oxford, Pearson Publishing.
 
Note:
Always group your sources, for example, list all of your internet sources together, your journal sources together, book sources together etc… and also put these sections in alphabetical order.

Referencing Formats

Reference Format In-text Reference Requirements Full Reference Requirements Notes
Books (Author, year of publication) or Author (year of publication) states… Author, A. (year of publication) Title of Book, Place of publication, Publisher. If the book has an edition number you should record this after the title.
Book Chapters Some agree (Author of chapter, year of publication) or Author of chapter (year of publication) states… Author of chapter, A. (year of publication) ‘Title of chapter’, in Author, A. (ed[s]) (year of publication) Title of Book, Place of publication, Publisher.  
Ebooks online (Author, year of ebook publication) or
Author (year of ebook publication) states…
Author, A. (year of publication) Title of Book [online], Place of publication if available, Publisher if available, URL (date accessed).  
Ebooks on readers (Author, year of ebook publication) or
Author (year of ebook publication) states…
Author, A. (year of ebook publication) Title of Book [ebook], Place of publication, Publisher.  
Translated books (Author, year of publication) or Author (year of publication) says… Author, A. (year of publication of translated version [year of publication of original work if available]) Title of Book (trans, A. Translator), Place of publication, Publisher.  
 
Journal articles (Author, year of publication) or Author (year of publication) states… Author, A. (year of publication) ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, volume (abbreviated to vol.), number (abbreviated to no.), page numbers (abbreviated to pp.).  
Ejournal articles (Author, year of publication) or Author (year of publication) states… Author, A. (year of publication) ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, volume (abbreviated to vol.) number (abbreviated to no.) [online], URL (date accessed).  
Websites and web resources (Author, year of publication/last updated) or Author (year of publication/last updated) states… Author, A. (year of publication/last updated) Title of Website [online], URL (date accessed).  
Online documents (Author, year of publication if given) or Author (year of publication if given) states… Author, A. (year of publication if given) Title of Document [online], Place of publication, Publisher, URL (date accessed).  
Blogs (Author, year of publication/last updated) or Author (year of publication/last updated) states… Author, A. (year of publication/last updated) ‘Title of message’, Title of Website, day/month of posted message [online], URL (date accessed).  

Wikis (Title of wiki, year last modified) or Title of wiki (year of last modified) states… Title of wiki (year last modified) Article title [online], date last modified, URL (date accessed).  
Twitter (Author, year of publication) or Author (year of publication) states… Author of tweet (year of publication) Full tweet, date of tweet, URL (date accessed).  
Podcasts (Title of podcast, year of publication) or Title of podcast (year of publication) states… Title of podcast (year of publication) podcast type, Podcaster, Place of podcast [online], URL (date accessed).  
Newspapers (Author, year of publication) or Author (year of publication) says… Author, A. (year of publication) ‘Title of article’, Title of the Newspaper, date, page number.  
Newspapers online (Author, year of publication) or Author (year of publication) states… Author, A. (year of publication) ‘Title of article’Title of the Newspaper, date [online] URL (date accessed).  

Images (Title of image, year of production) or Title of image (year of production) illustrates that… Title of Image (year of production) [online], URL (date accessed).  
Works of art (Artist, year of production) or Artist (year of production) illustrates… Artist, A. (year of production) Title of Image, medium, size, location.  
TV programme (Title of programme, year of broadcast) or Title of programme (year of broadcast) says… Title of Programme (year of broadcast) channel, date of transmission.  
Film (Title of film, year of release) or Title of film (year of release) says… Title of Film (year of release) film, directed by Director Name, Distribution Company.  
Audio CD (Artist, year of release) Artist (year of release) Title, audio CD, recording company.  

YouTube item (Title of item, date uploaded) or Title of item (date uploaded) states… Title of item (date uploaded) YouTube video, added by name of who uploaded it [online] URL (date accessed).  
Reports (Author, year of publication) or Author (year of publication) says… Author, A. (year of publication), Title, Issuing Organisation, report number.  
Conference papers (Author, year of publication) or Author (year of publication) says… Author, A. (year of publication) ‘Title of paper’, Title of Conference, Location, date of conference, Place of publication, Publisher, page numbers.  
Theses (Author, year of submission/publication) or Author (year of submission/publication) says… Author, A. (year of submission/publication) Title: subtitle, designation, Place of submission/publication, Awarding institution.  
Patents (Inventor name, year) Inventor, A. Assignee name if not also inventor, (Year) Title, Country of issue and patent number.  

Monday, 3 September 2012

Assignments Checklist

Plan Planning is essential, it helps you to understand - what is being asked, what you should be writing about and also helps you to ensure that you do not forget to answer every part of each question.
Include in your Assignment Know your command words.
Examples from any work experience/placements – where appropriate.
Use words like: therefore, however, overall. Expand on all of your topics, do not just copy and re-word. During your studies you should have gained your own understanding of a topic.
Explain: Why? And How?
Use phrases like: such as, this can, why? This can help, this can be effective because…
Why something might be beneficial?
Why is it effective?
In what way does it help?
Provide more than one example.
Always provide more detailed explanations, opinions, examples and reasons. For example: for B, A & A* grades and also pass, merit & distinction.
Never copy – this is plagiarism! Always read through, appropriate/reliable information – more than once, understand it, learn from it and write using your own words.
Use third person narrative – people think, it is, though, that, it is said that.
Stick to the point – Re-read your question(s) carefully.
Pick out key points and talk about each.
Always refer back to the question, your notes, marking grids and specifications.
Write your essay/assignment – 1 st Draft Write your essay/assignment.
Stick to the point(s) – Re-read questions frequently.
Always write in full.
Take care not to discuss issues/topics twice in different places.
Stick to one paragraph per issue/topic.
Provide good points and bad ones. If you have a word limit – on your 1 st draft write as much as possible, relating to your subject, answering your question(s) – consider your word limit.
Proof Read (1) Look for any paragraphs that do not make sense.
Check paragraphs to make sure they flow properly and lead naturally from one point to the next.
Read your work out loud – this may help.
Make amendments where appropriate/necessary.
Always ask someone to read your work.
Complete your – 2nd Draft Make amendments from Proof Read (1).
Re-word anything that does not make sense.
If a word limit applies – remove anything that you have repeated, anything that is not relevant and/or anything that does not relate to your question(s).
Proof Read (2) Check punctuation, spelling and grammar.
Ask someone to read your work to check that it flows properly.
Final Draft Make final amendments where appropriate/necessary.
Read through all of your work, to make sure that it flows and makes sense.
If you are happy that all is correct, print your assignment ready to be sumitted.

Comand Words and Meanings